+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors

The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors

Iranian Journal of Public Health 44(12): 1662-1669

The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 059018349

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 26811817

Related references

Ingestion of androgenic-anabolic steroids induces mild thyroidal impairment in male body builders. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 76(4): 1069-1071, 1993

Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is impaired in male body builders taking anabolic-androgenic steroids. Atherosclerosis 158(2): 483-490, 2001

Lipoapoproteinemic effects of anabolic androgenic steroids in body builders. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 148(1-2): 5-9, 1989

Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among body builders--frequency and attitudes. Journal of Internal Medicine 227(6): 407-411, 1990

Lipoprotein (a) and cholesterol in body builders using anabolic androgenic steroids. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(2): 176-179, 1996

Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids by athletes and body builders: a review. Pharmaceutical Journal 259(6954): 171-179, 1997

Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among body builders in major gym centers in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas 39(3): 327-333, Jul -Set, 2003

Severe depression of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in weight lifters and body builders by self-administered exogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 33(11): 971-975, 1984

Evidence for mild thyroidal impairment in male body builders on high dose androgenic anabolic steroid therapy. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 21(2 Part 2): 27, 1991

The effect of anabolic steroids on the immune response in male body builders. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 19(2 Suppl.): S52, 1987

Low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in male body builders on anabolic steroids. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 18(2 Suppl.): S14, 1986

Self administered exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids depress high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein a 1 levels and increase post heparin hepatic lipase in weightlifters body builders. Clinical Research 32(4): 798A, 1984

Factors influencing aggression toward females by male rats exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids during puberty. Hormones and Behavior 51(1): 135-141, 2007

The Anabolic 500 survey: characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids for strength training. PharmacoTherapy 31(8): 757-766, 2011

Evaluation of a health promotion programme to prevent the misuse of androgenic anabolic steroids among Swedish adolescents. Health Promotion International 19(1): 61-67, 2004