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The Vienna and German heritage of orthopaedics from the first half of the twentieth century: Adolf Lorenz, Lorenz Böhler, Friedrich Pauwels, Gerhard Küntscher


The Vienna and German heritage of orthopaedics from the first half of the twentieth century: Adolf Lorenz, Lorenz Böhler, Friedrich Pauwels, Gerhard Küntscher



International Orthopaedics 40(5): 1049-1058



ISSN/ISBN: 0341-2695

PMID: 26759255

DOI: 10.1007/s00264-015-3101-3

In the last part of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century surgeons at the University of Vienna helped transform the practice of surgery. They developed new more effective procedures, analyzed the results of their operations, promoted the emergence and growth of surgical specialties and sought understanding of tissue structure, physiology and pathophysiology. Their efforts made Vienna one of the world's most respected centres for operative treatment, basic and clinical research and surgical education. Two individuals, Adolf Lorenz (1854-1946) and Lorenz Böhler (1885-1973) focused their research and clinical practice on orthopaedics. During the same period in Germany Friedrich Pauwels (1885-1980) founded an orthopaedic institute and an engineering workshop in Aachen in 1913 and rapidly developed a lifelong interest in biomechanical influences: Using these theories, he achieved in 1927 healing of a non-union of the femoral neck by a re-orientation osteotomy, a condition considered to be incurable until this osteotomy and created his famous classification of fracture angles at the hip into Pauwels types I, II and III. The German orthopaedist Gerhard Küntscher (1900-1972) remained the most popular surgeon after the second war with his famous nail.

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Accession: 059037160

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