EurekaMag
+ Most Popular
Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in China
Mammalian lairs in paleo ecological studies and palynology
Studies on technological possibilities in utilization of anhydrous milk fat for production of recombined butter-like products
Should right-sided fibroelastomas be operated upon?
Large esophageal lipoma
Apoptosis in the mammalian thymus during normal histogenesis and under various in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions
Poissons characoides nouveaux ou non signales de l'Ilha do Bananal, Bresil
Desensitizing efficacy of Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength and Fresh Mint Sensodyne dentifrices
Administration of fluid by subcutaneous infusion: revival of a forgotten method
Tundra mosquito control - an impossible dream?
Schizophrenia for primary care providers: how to contribute to the care of a vulnerable patient population
Geochemical pattern analysis; method of describing the Southeastern limestone regional aquifer system
Incidence of low birth weights in a hospital of Mexico City
Tabanidae
Graded management intensity of grassland systems for enhancing floristic diversity
Microbiology and biochemistry of cheese and fermented milk
The ember tetra: a new pygmy characid tetra from the Rio das Mortes, Brazil, Hyphessobrycon amandae sp. n. (Pisces, Characoidei)
Risk factors of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients after coronary artery intervention
Renovation of onsite domestic wastewater in a poorly drained soil
Observations of the propagation velocity and formation mechanism of burst fractures caused by gunshot
Systolic blood pressure in a population of infants in the first year of life: the Brompton study
Haematological studies in rats fed with metanil yellow
Studies on pasteurellosis. I. A new species of Pasteurella encountered in chronic fowl cholera
Dormancy breaking and germination of Acacia salicina Lindl. seeds
therapy of lupus nephritis. a two-year prospective study

The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis


The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis



Plos one 10(3): E0120392



ISSN/ISBN: 1932-6203

PMID: 25793523

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120392

Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD) or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD). Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry) or reduced (negative allometry) size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width). Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution in interpreting findings. We highly recommend use of discriminant function analysis to identify the least-biased reference character.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 059053862

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Sexual size dimorphism and character scaling of Cynops orientalis. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 30.5 (September 28): 772-776, 2011

Misinterpretation of character scaling: A tale of sexual dimorphism in body shape of common lizards. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(6): 1112-1117, 2003

Sexual dimorphism in body shape without sexual dimorphism in body size in water skinks (Eulamprus quoyii). Herpetologica 61(2): 116-123, 2005

Scaling relationships between craniofacial sexual dimorphism and body mass dimorphism in primates: implications for the fossil record. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 120(1): 38-60, 2003

Morphometric variation, sexual size dimorphism and character scaling in a marginal population of Montandons newt Triturus montandoni from the Czech Republic. Italian Journal of Zoology (Modena) 65.4: 399-405, 1998

Large body size sexual dimorphism sexual selection and simple allometry the case of the subfossil lemurs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Suppl 14): 115, 1992

Can sexual dimorphism in skeletal size be used to assess sexual dimorphism in body size?. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Suppl (38): 171, 2004

Allometry for sexual size dimorphism: pattern and process in the coevolution of body size in males and females. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 659-687, 1997

Allometry for Sexual Size Dimorphism:pattern and Process in the Coevolution of Body Size in Males and Females. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28(1): 659-687, 1997

Sexual selection explains Rensch's rule of allometry for sexual size dimorphism. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 274(1628): 2971-2979, 2007

Sexual Selection Explains Rensch's Rule of Allometry for Sexual Size Dimorphism. Proceedings: Biological Sciences 274(1628): 2971-2979, 2007

Sexual selection and the evolution of allometry for sexual size dimorphism in the water strider, Aquarius remigis. American Naturalist 144.1, 1994

Population variation in sexual selection and its effect on size allometry in two dung fly species with contrasting sexual size dimorphism. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 56(2): 307-321, 2002

Scaling of sexual dimorphism in body size and breeding system in primates. Nature 272(5654): 610-611, 1978

Scaling of sexual dimorphism in body weight and canine size in primates. Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology 37(3-4): 163-176, 1982