The influence of exendin-4 intervention on -obese diabetic mouse blood and the pancreatic tissue immune microenvironment

He, J.; Lian, C.; Fang, Y.; Wu, J.; Zhou, H.; Ye, X.

Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 12(5): 2893-2898

2016


ISSN/ISBN: 1792-0981
PMID: 27882092
DOI: 10.3892/etm.2016.3694
Accession: 059079907

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Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of exendin-4 intervention on non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse blood and the pancreatic tissue immune microenvironment. A total of 40 clean NOD mice were used in the study and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10/group). The first group was blank control group D with normal saline intervention, and with different doses of exendin, i.e.,-4 2, 4 and 8 µg/kg/day. The three remaining groups were: i) Low-dose group A; ii) medium-dose group B; and iii) high-dose group C. Mice in the four groups went through intervention for 8 weeks. Their mass and blood glucose levels were tested each week. After 8 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and mouse serum samples were reserved. The ELISA method was used to test peripheral blood (PB), IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels. Pancreatic samples were created. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the infiltration degree of mouse pancreatitis and the local expression state of pancreatic IL-10. Mouse pancreatic tissues were suspended in pancreatic cell suspension. Flow cytometry was used to test the state of T-cell subsets CD4 and CD25. Mouse pancreatitis in control group D was mainly at grade 2and 3. Under a light microscope, it was observed that pancreatic cell morphology was in disorder, and the size and quantity of the pancreas was small. Mouse pancreatitis in the exendin-4 low-dose group A, medium-dose group B and high-dose group C was mainly at grade 0 and 1. Under a light microscope, it was observed that pancreatic cell morphology improved, the infiltration degree of lymphocyte was improved and pancreatic islet size was restored somewhat. Additionally, a few brownish granules were identified within the pancreatic sample cells in control group D. There were many brownish granules with deep color within the pancreatic sample cells in exendin-4 low-dose group A, medium-dose group B and high-dose group C. IL-10 immunohistochemistry scores in the low-dose group A, medium-dose group B and high-dose group C were 3.82±0.72, 4.34±0.86 and 4.81±0.94, respectively, and were higher than the score of 2.25±0.63 in control group D. CD4+CD25+T-cell proportions in mouse pancreatic tissues of low-dose group A, medium-dose group B and high-dose group C were 5.31, 5.53 and 5.74%, respectively, which were higher than that of the CD4+CD25+T-cell proportion (1.62% in control group D). The CD4+CD25high T-cell proportion in CD4+T-cells in group A, B and C increased. Compared with control group D, serum IL-10 levels in the exendin-4 low-dose group A, medium-dose group B and high-dose group C increased (P<0.05), while levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ decreased (P<0.05). Additionally, the difference of serum IL-10, IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in the low-dose group A, medium-dose group B and high-dose group C was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Exendin-4 intervention can increase quantities of CD4 and CD8+T cells in NOD mouse pancreases, with PB IL-10 expression and local expression of IL-10 in pancreatic tissues. It also can inhibit the expression of serum IL-2 and IFN-γ, regulate the organism immune microenvironment and prevent diabetes. CD4+CD25high T cells increase in NOD tumor infiltration lymphocytes mediated by exendin-4 intervention, which may be related to the fact that exendin-4 inhibits the lethal effect of CD8+T cells through contact among cells and eventually exerts immunosuppressive effect.