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Thrombin generation and bleeding in haemophilia inhibitor patients during immune tolerance induction

Thrombin generation and bleeding in haemophilia inhibitor patients during immune tolerance induction

Haemophilia 22(2): 240-247

Inhibitor formation complicates haemophilia treatment and requires immune tolerance induction to rid inhibitors over 5 BU. In the prospective, randomized International Immune Tolerance Study, immune tolerance induction was equally effective with high-dose (HD) (200 IU kg-1 day-1 ) and low-dose (LD) (50 IU kg-1 3× per week) factor VIII, but haemorrhages were twofold higher in the LD arm. This finding was unexpected as inhibitors neutralize FVIII activity. We hypothesized that the thrombin generation assay (TGA), a global measure of clot formation, might predict bleeding better than FVIII levels. We evaluated TGA using relipidated tissue factor (TF) on 83 thawed, recalcified corn trypsin inhibitor/citrate plasma samples from 31 subjects (17 HD, 14 LD) who participated on the ITI study, and who had sufficient sample available and appropriate informed consent. There were no significant differences in peak thrombin, estimated thrombin potential, maximum rate or lag time between HD and LD arms; between pre-, during and post-ITI time points, or after FVIII spiking. In 19 subjects (12 HD, 7 LD) with anti-FVIII<1.0 BU, the prevalence of non-neutralizing antibody (NNA) and neutralizing antibody (NA) was 89.5% (17/19), and the latter strongly correlated with anti-VIII titer, r = 0.73 [95% CI: 0.55, 0.88]. In haemophilia inhibitor patients, thrombin generation is present, but does not predict bleeding risk. Following tolerance induction, NNA remains detectable in the majority.

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Accession: 059130541

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PMID: 26517283

DOI: 10.1111/hae.12830

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