Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia
Bušić, M.; Bjeloš, M.; Petrovečki, M.; Kuzmanović Elabjer, B.; Bosnar, D.; Ramić, S.; Miletić, D.; Andrijašević, L.; Kondža Krstonijević, E.; Jakovljević, V.; Bišćan Tvrdi, A.; Predović, J.; Kokot, A.; Bišćan, F.; Kovačević Ljubić, M.; Motušić Aras, R.
Croatian Medical Journal 57(1): 29-41
ISSN/ISBN: 1332-8166 PMID: 26935612 DOI: 10.3325/cmj.2016.57.29
To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.