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Anatomic findings associated with epispadias in boys: Implications for surgical management and urinary continence

Anatomic findings associated with epispadias in boys: Implications for surgical management and urinary continence

Journal of Pediatric Urology 14(1): 42-46

Pre-operative physical examination of male epispadias allows for classification of epispadias level as glanular (GE), penile (PE) or penopubic (PPE), and for delineation of anatomic anomalies. The incidence of associated extragenital abnormalities, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), bladder neck (BN) abnormality and abnormal pubic diastasis (PD), and their impact on urinary continence has not yet been systematically studied. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the more proximal level of epispadias correlated with associated extragenital anatomic anomalies seen on initial imaging or endoscopic evaluation, and whether these pre-operative findings contributed to subsequent surgical management and impacted on achieving urinary continence. It was hypothesized that the more severe forms of epispadias may be associated with a higher frequency of associated anomalies. The study was an IRB-approved, retrospective case study of all male patients treated initially for isolated epispadias at the current institution between 1994 and 2011. Data collection was achieved by chart and radiology review evaluating PD, BN appearance, presence of VUR, surgical treatment, and urinary continence. A total of 26 patients were identified and divided into three groups based on appearance at physical examination: four glanular (GE), eight penile (PE), and 14 penopubic (PPE); 17 patients had an abnormal BN. Reflux was noted in nine of 20 patients who had a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), two of which had an episode of pyelonephritis. Of the 22 patients past the age of toilet training, 17 were continent (64% (9/14) penopubic, 63% (5/8) penile, and 75% (3/4) glanular). Anatomic classification for male epispadias did not provide sufficient information regarding extragenital findings. This study provided new information regarding PD, BN appearance, presence of reflux, and ultimate urinary continence. Pubic diastasis and BN abnormalities were more frequently seen in more severe forms of epispadias, whereas VUR seemed more prevalent in less severe forms. A template for pre-operative evaluation was outlined. Limitations of the study were its retrospective design and relatively small cohort of patients, which reflected the rarity of the condition. Based on the information generated, additional anatomic information was generated regarding boys with epispadias. This information will help guide the evaluation and the management of these patients in the future.

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Accession: 059357981

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PMID: 29150195

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.09.022

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