An Fc Double-Engineered CD20 Antibody with Enhanced Ability to Trigger Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity and Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Wirt, T.; Rosskopf, S.; Rösner, T.; Eichholz, K.Marie.; Kahrs, A.; Lutz, S.; Kretschmer, A.; Valerius, T.; Klausz, K.; Otte, A.; Gramatzki, M.; Peipp, M.; Kellner, C.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy: Offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie 44(5): 292-300
Engineering of the antibody's fragment crystallizable (Fc) by modifying the amino acid sequence (Fc protein engineering) or the glycosylation pattern (Fc glyco-engineering) allows enhancing effector functions of tumor targeting antibodies. Here, we investigated whether complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of CD20 antibodies could be improved simultaneously by combining Fc protein engineering and glyco-engineering technologies. Four variants of the CD20 antibody rituximab were generated: a native IgG1, a variant carrying the EFTAE modification (S267E/H268F/S324T/G236A/I332E) for enhanced CDC as well as glyco-engineered, non-fucosylated derivatives of both to boost ADCC. The antibodies bound CD20 specifically with similar affinity. Antibodies with EFTAE modification were more efficacious in mediating CDC, irrespective of fucosylation, than antibodies with wild-type sequences due to enhanced C1q binding. In contrast, non-fucosylated variants had an enhanced affinity to FcγRIIIA and improved ADCC activity. Importantly, the double-engineered antibody lacking fucose and carrying the EFTAE modification mediated both CDC and ADCC with higher efficacy than the native CD20 IgG1 antibody. Combining glyco-engineering and protein engineering technologies offers the opportunity to simultaneously enhance ADCC and CDC activities of therapeutic antibodies. This approach may represent an attractive strategy to further improve antibody therapy of cancer and deserves further evaluation.