Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 via NF-κB Pathway in A549 Cells and Human Asthmatic Lung Tissue
Lee, I.-S.; Uh, I.; Kim, K.-S.; Kim, K.-H.; Park, J.; Kim, Y.; Jung, J.-H.; Jung, H.-J.; Jang, H.-J.
Journal of Immunology Research 2016: 7521601
Objective. There is limited information of the anti-inflammatory effects of Rg3 on inflamed lung cells and tissues. Therefore, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginsenoside Rg3 in inflamed human airway epithelial cells (A549) and tissues whether Rg3 regulates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. Methods. To induce the inflammation, IL-1β (10 ng/ml) was treated to A549 cells for 4 h. The effects of Rg3 on NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression were evaluated by western blotting analysis in both IL-1β-induced inflamed A549 cell and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Using multiplex cytokines assay, the secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines were measured. Result. Rg3 showed the significant inhibition of NF-κB activity thereby reduced COX-2 expression was determined in both IL-1β-induced inflamed A549 cell and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. In addition, among NF-κB-mediated cytokines, the secretion levels of IL-4, TNF-α, and eotaxin were significantly decreased by Rg3 in asthma tissues. Even though there was no significant difference, IL-6, IL-9, and IL-13 secretion showed a lower tendency compared to saline-treated human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Conclusion. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of Rg3 as an anti-inflammatory agent through regulating NF-κB activity and reducing the secretion of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines.