Effective management of soft rot of ginger caused by Pythium spp. and Fusarium spp.: emerging role of nanotechnology
Rai, M.; Ingle, A.P.; Paralikar, P.; Anasane, N.; Gade, R.; Ingle, P.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 102(16): 6827-6839
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a tropical plant cultivated all over the world due to its culinary and medicinal properties. It is one of the most important spices commonly used in food, which increases its commercial value. However, soft rot (rhizome rot) is a common disease of ginger caused by fungi such as Pythium and Fusarium spp. It is the most destructive disease of ginger, which can reduce the production by 50 to 90%. Application of chemical fungicides is considered as an effective method to control soft rot of ginger but extensive use of fungicides pose serious risk to environmental and human health. Therefore, the development of ecofriendly and economically viable alternative approaches for effective management of soft rot of ginger such diseases is essentially required. An acceptable approach that is being actively investigated involves nanotechnology, which can potentially be used to control Pythium and Fusarium. The present review is aimed to discuss worldwide status of soft rot associated with ginger, the traditional methods available for the management of Pythium and Fusarium spp. and most importantly, the role of various nanomaterials in the management of soft rot of ginger. Moreover, possible antifungal mechanisms for chemical fungicides, biological agents and nanoparticles have also been discussed.