Dose evaluation of lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children aged 5 months to 18 years based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis

Janssen, E.J.H.; Bastiaans, D.E.T.; Välitalo, P.A.J.; van Rossum, A.M.C.; Jacqz-Aigrain, E.; Lyall, H.; Knibbe, C.A.J.; Burger, D.M.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 83(6): 1287-1297


ISSN/ISBN: 1365-2125
PMID: 28079918
Accession: 059628395

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The objectives of this study were to characterize age-related changes in lamivudine pharmacokinetics in children and evaluate lamivudine exposure, followed by dose recommendations for subgroups in which target steady state area under the daily plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h ) is not reached. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was performed in NONMEM using data from two model-building datasets and two external datasets [n = 180 (age 0.4-18 years, body weight 3.4-60.5 kg); 2061 samples (median 12 per child); daily oral dose 60-300 mg (3.9-17.6 mg kg-1 )]. Steady state AUC0-24h was calculated per individual (adult target 8.9 mg·h l-1 ). A two-compartment model with sequential zero order and first order absorption best described the data. Apparent clearance and central volume of distribution (% RSE) were 13.2 l h-1 (4.2%) and 38.9 l (7.0%) for a median individual of 16.6 kg, respectively. Bodyweight was identified as covariate on apparent clearance and volume of distribution using power functions (exponents 0.506 (20.2%) and 0.489 (32.3%), respectively). The external evaluation supported the predictive ability of the final model. In 94.5% and 35.8% of the children with a body weight >14 kg and <14 kg, respectively, the target AUC0-24h was reached. Bodyweight best predicted the developmental changes in apparent lamivudine clearance and volume of distribution. For children aged 5 months-18 years with a body weight <14 kg, the dose should be increased from 8 to 10 mg kg-1  day-1 if the adult target for AUC0-24h is aimed for. In order to identify whether bodyweight influences bioavailability, clearance and/or volume of distribution, future analysis including data on intravenously administered lamivudine is needed.