Effects of an injectable platelet-rich fibrin on osteoblast behavior and bone tissue formation in comparison to platelet-rich plasma
Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Choukroun, J.; Ghanaati, S.; Miron, R.J.
Platelets 29(1): 48-55
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized for many years as a regenerative agent capable of inducing vascularization of various tissues using blood-derived growth factors. Despite this, drawbacks mostly related to the additional use of anti-coagulants found in PRP have been shown to inhibit the wound healing process. For these reasons, a novel platelet concentrate has recently been developed with no additives by utilizing lower centrifugation speeds. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate osteoblast behavior of this novel therapy (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin; i-PRF, 100% natural with no additives) when compared to traditional PRP. Human primary osteoblasts were cultured with either i-PRF or PRP and compared to control tissue culture plastic. A live/dead assay, migration assay as well as a cell adhesion/proliferation assay were investigated. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alizarin red and osteocalcin staining, as well as real-time PCR for genes encoding Runx2, ALP, collagen1 and osteocalcin. The results showed that all cells had high survival rates throughout the entire study period irrespective of culture-conditions. While PRP induced a significant 2-fold increase in osteoblast migration, i-PRF demonstrated a 3-fold increase in migration when compared to control tissue-culture plastic and PRP. While no differences were observed for cell attachment, i-PRF induced a significantly higher proliferation rate at three and five days when compared to PRP. Furthermore, i-PRF induced significantly greater ALP staining at 7 days and alizarin red staining at 14 days. A significant increase in mRNA levels of ALP, Runx2 and osteocalcin, as well as immunofluorescent staining of osteocalcin was also observed in the i-PRF group when compared to PRP. In conclusion, the results from the present study favored the use of the naturally-formulated i-PRF when compared to traditional PRP with anti-coagulants. Further investigation into the direct role of fibrin and leukocytes contained within i-PRF are therefore warranted to better elucidate their positive role in i-PRF on tissue wound healing.