Enhanced hepatic insulin signaling in the livers of high altitude native rats under basal conditions and in the livers of low altitude native rats under insulin stimulation: a mechanistic study

Al Dera, H.; Eleawa, S.M.; Al-Hashem, F.H.; Mahzari, M.M.; Hoja, I.; Al Khateeb, M.

Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 123(3): 145-158


ISSN/ISBN: 1381-3455
PMID: 28084108
DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2016.1275701
Accession: 059684325

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This study was designed to investigate the role of the liver in lowering fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) in rats native to high (HA) and low altitude (LA) areas. As compared with LA natives, besides the improved insulin and glucose tolerance, HA native rats had lower FBG, at least mediated by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and activation of glycogen synthesis. An effect that is mediated by the enhancement of hepatic insulin signaling mediated by the decreased phosphorylation of TSC induced inhibition of mTOR function. Such effect was independent of activation of AMPK nor stabilization of HIF1α, but most probably due to oxidative stress induced REDD1 expression. However, under insulin stimulation, and in spite of the less activated mTOR function in HA native rats, LA native rats had higher glycogen content and reduced levels of gluconeogenic enzymes with a more enhanced insulin signaling, mainly due to higher levels of p-IRS1 (tyr612).