+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Fine Particulate Matter and Total Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study Cohort Reanalysis



Fine Particulate Matter and Total Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study Cohort Reanalysis



Dose-Response 15(1): 1559325817693345



In 1997 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), largely because of its positive relationship to total mortality in the 1982 American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS II) cohort. Subsequently, EPA has used this relationship as the primary justification for many costly regulations, most recently the Clean Power Plan. An independent analysis of the CPS II data was conducted in order to test the validity of this relationship. The original CPS II questionnaire data, including 1982 to 1988 mortality follow-up, were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results were obtained for 292 277 participants in 85 counties with 1979-1983 EPA Inhalable Particulate Network PM2.5 measurements, as well as for 212 370 participants in the 50 counties used in the original 1995 analysis. The 1982 to 1988 relative risk (RR) of death from all causes and 95% confidence interval adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and smoking status was 1.023 (0.997-1.049) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 in 85 counties and 1.025 (0.990-1.061) in the 50 original counties. The fully adjusted RR was null in the western and eastern portions of the United States, including in areas with somewhat higher PM2.5 levels, particularly 5 Ohio Valley states and California. No significant relationship between PM2.5 and total mortality in the CPS II cohort was found when the best available PM2.5 data were used. The original 1995 analysis found a positive relationship by selective use of CPS II and PM2.5 data. This independent analysis of underlying data raises serious doubts about the CPS II epidemiologic evidence supporting the PM2.5 NAAQS. These findings provide strong justification for further independent analysis of the CPS II data.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 059740650

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 28473741

DOI: 10.1177/1559325817693345


Related references

Atmospheric fine particulate matter and breast cancer mortality: a population-based cohort study. Bmj Open 6(11): E012580, 2018

Interactions between cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter in the Risk of Lung Cancer Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study II. American Journal of Epidemiology 180(12): 1145-1149, 2015

Fine particulate matter and mortality a comparison of the six cities and American Cancer Society cohorts with a Medicare cohort. Epidemiology: 2, 209-216, 2008

Fine particulate matter and mortality: a comparison of the six cities and American Cancer Society cohorts with a medicare cohort. Epidemiology 19(2): 209-216, 2008

Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 124(9): 1421-1428, 2017

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter: association with nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the agricultural health study cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 122(6): 609-615, 2015

Risk of nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in relation to long-term exposure to low concentrations of fine particulate matter: a Canadian national-level cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(5): 708-714, 2012

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort study: effects of total and traffic-specific air pollution. Environmental Health 14: 53, 2016

Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 26(3): 428-430, 2017

Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 26(3): 428-430, 2016

Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101(3): 558-569, 2015

Associations between fine particulate matter and mortality in the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort. Environmental Research 159: 406-415, 2017

Long-term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Nonaccidental and Cause-specific Mortality in a Large National Cohort of Chinese Men. Environmental Health Perspectives 125(11): 117002, 2018

Association between fine ambient particulate matter and daily total mortality: An analysis from 160 communities of China. Science of the Total Environment 599-600: 108-113, 2017

Risk estimates of mortality attributed to low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter in the Canadian community health survey cohort. Environmental Health 15: 18, 2016