Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Ma, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, W.; Yang, C.; Ding, P.; Liu, Y.; Qiao, L.; Chang, Z.; Geng, H.; Wang, P.; Jiang, Q.; Wang, J.; Chen, G.; Wei, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Lan, X.
Plos one 12(7): E0181443
The MADS-box genes encode transcription factors with key roles in plant growth and development. A comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has not yet been conducted, and our understanding of their roles in stress is rather limited. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the MADS-box gene family in wheat. A total of 180 MADS-box genes classified as 32 Mα, 5 Mγ, 5 Mδ, and 138 MIKC types were identified. Evolutionary analysis of the orthologs among T. urartu, Aegilops tauschii and wheat as well as homeologous sequences analysis among the three sub-genomes in wheat revealed that gene loss and chromosomal rearrangements occurred during and/or after the origin of bread wheat. Forty wheat MADS-box genes that were expressed throughout the investigated tissues and development stages were identified. The genes that were regulated in response to both abiotic stresses (i.e., phosphorus deficiency, drought, heat, and combined drought and heat) and biotic stresses (i.e., Fusarium graminearum, Septoria tritici, stripe rust and powdery mildew) were detected as well. A few notable MADS-box genes were specifically expressed in a single tissue and those showed relatively higher expression differences between the stress and control treatment. The expression patterns of considerable MADS-box genes differed from those of their orthologs in Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis. Collectively, the present study provides new insights into the possible roles of MADS-box genes in response to stresses and will be valuable for further functional studies of important candidate MADS-box genes.