Identification and Quantification of Intravenous Therapy Drugs Using Normal Raman Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Zaleski, S.; Clark, K.A.; Smith, M.M.; Eilert, J.Y.; Doty, M.; Van Duyne, R.P.
Analytical Chemistry 89(4): 2497-2504
Errors in intravenous (IV) drug therapies can cause human harm and even death. There are limited label-free methods that can sensitively monitor the identity and quantity of the drug being administered. Normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS) provides a modestly sensitive, label-free, and completely noninvasive means of IV drug sensing. In the case that the analyte cannot be detected within its clinical range with Raman, a label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach can be implemented to detect the analyte of interest. In this work, we demonstrate two individual cases where we use NRS and electrochemical SERS (EC-SERS) to detect IV therapy analytes within their clinically relevant ranges. We implement NRS to detect gentamicin, a commonly IV-administered antibiotic and EC-SERS to detect dobutamine, a drug commonly administered after heart surgery. In particular, dobutamine detection with EC-SERS was found to have a limit of detection 4 orders of magnitude below its clinical range, highlighting the excellent sensitivity of SERS. We also demonstrate the use of hand-held Raman instrumentation for NRS and EC-SERS, showing that Raman is a highly sensitive technique that is readily applicable in a clinical setting.