+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Immunological and epidemiological factors affecting candidiasis in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy in an Asian clinic



Immunological and epidemiological factors affecting candidiasis in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy in an Asian clinic



Archives of Oral Biology 82: 86-91



Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is common in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we address the response to ART, and the roles of poor oral hygiene and defects in local innate immunity with a focus on salivary β-defensins, as they are implicated in control of candidiasis but have not been investigated in this context. ART naïve HIV-infected adults (n=82) with <200 CD4+ T-cells/mm3 attending clinics at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, were examined at the commencement of ART, and 73 were re-examined after 3 months. OPC was detected by clinical examination, and Candida albicans and fungal burdens were determined following culture on CHROMagar and saboroud-dextrose agar (resp). Salivary β-defensins (-2 and -3) were quantified by ELISA. Healthy control subjects (n=40) matched the patients by age and gender. OPC was evident in 47 patients before ART, and associated with greater fingal burdens. No OPC was detected in healthy controls and culture positivity was rare. ART decreased the prevalence of OPC to 8/73 HIV patients re-examined after 3 months, with reduced total fungal and C. albicans burdens. The incidence of OPC was independent of oral hygiene. Hyposalivation was more common in untreated HIV patients (16%) than after 3 months on ART and was rare in healthy controls. HIV patients were also more likely to have acidic saliva. Salivary β-defensin-2 was elevated in the presence of C. albicans pseudohyphae and OPC after 3 months on ART, but β-defensin-3 was not affected by OPC or ART. ART reduces the prevalence of OPC, and the total fungal and C. albicans burden. Levels of salivary β-defensin-2 may associate with OPC in HIV patients responding to ART.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 059833617

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 28622549

DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.021


Related references

Trends of CD4 cell count levels at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy over time and factors associated with late initiation of antiretroviral therapy among Asian HIV-positive patients. Journal of the International Aids Society 17: 18804, 2014

Epidemiological, clinical, immunological and virological characteristics of HIV-1 infected patients at the moment of initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny 57(3): 449-458, 2003

Clinical audit: virological and immunological response to combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients at a Sydney sexual health clinic. Internal Medicine Journal 40(4): 265-274, 2010

Determination of hematological and immunological parameters among HIV positive patients taking highly active antiretroviral treatment and treatment naïve in the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study. Bmc Hematology 14(1): 8, 2014

Factors associated with loss to clinic among HIV patients not yet known to be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Mozambique. Journal of the International Aids Society 16: 18490, 2013

Factors associated with sustained virologic suppression in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban HIV care clinic. Aids Patient Care and Stds 19(12): 785-793, 2005

Factors associated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients newly entering care in an urban clinic. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 32(4): 399-405, 2003

Factors affecting antiretroviral drug adherence among HIV/AIDS adult patients attending HIV/AIDS clinic at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health 5(2): 74-78, 2008

Factors affecting antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected women with virologic suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study. Bmc Infectious Diseases 13: 256, 2013

Factors associated with esophageal candidiasis and its endoscopic severity in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Plos one 8(3): E58217, 2013

Effect of Legal Status on the Early Treatment Outcomes of Migrants Beginning Combined Antiretroviral Therapy at an Outpatient Clinic in Milan, Italy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 75(3): 315-321, 2017

Factors affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in HIV-infected patients on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Indian Journal of Medical Research 145(5): 641-650, 2017

Factors Associated with Immunological Discordance in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy with Complete Viral Suppression in a Resource-Limited Setting. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 68(4): 301-304, 2015

Beginning antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 28(3): 421-438, 2014

Mortality and immunological recovery among older adults on antiretroviral therapy at a large urban HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 67(4): 382-389, 2014