Induction of a Regulatory Phenotype in CD3+ CD4+ HLA-DR+ T Cells after Allogeneic Mixed Lymphocyte Culture; Indications of Both Contact-Dependent and -Independent Activation
Revenfeld, A.L.S.; Bæk, R.; Jørgensen, M.M.øl.; Varming, K.; Stensballe, A.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18(7)
ISSN/ISBN: 1422-0067 PMID: 28737722 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18071603
Although the observation of major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) receptors on T cells is longstanding, the explanation for this occurrence remains enigmatic. Reports of an inducible, endogenous expression exist, as do studies demonstrating a protein acquisition from other cells by mechanisms including vesicle transfer. Irrespective of origin, the presence of the human MHCII isotype, human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR), potentially identifies a regulatory T cell population. Using an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) to induce an antigen-specific immune response, the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for the presence of HLA-DR on cluster of differentiation 3(CD3)+ CD4+ T cells was evaluated. Moreover, a functional phenotype was established for these T cells. It was demonstrated that APCs were essential for HLA-DR on CD3+ CD4+ T cells. Additionally, a regulatory T cell phenotype was induced in CD3+ CD4+ HLA-DR+ responder T cells with an expression of CD25, CTLA-4, CD62L, PD-1, and TNFRII. This phenotype was induced both with and without physical T cell:APC contact, which could reveal novel indications about its functionality. To further investigate contact-independent communication, a phenotype of the small cell-derived vesicles from the MLCs was determined. Yet heterogeneous, this vesicle phenotype displayed contact-dependent differences, providing clues about their intended function in cellular communication.