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Insights into the Impact of CD8 + Immune Modulation on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Evolutionary Dynamics in Distinct Anatomical Compartments by Using Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaque Models of AIDS Progression

Insights into the Impact of CD8 + Immune Modulation on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Evolutionary Dynamics in Distinct Anatomical Compartments by Using Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaque Models of AIDS Progression

Journal of virology 91(23)

ISSN/ISBN: 0022-538X

PMID: 28931681

DOI: 10.1128/jvi.01162-17

A thorough understanding of the role of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intrahost evolution in AIDS pathogenesis has been limited by the need for longitudinally sampled viral sequences from the vast target space within the host, which are often difficult to obtain from human subjects. CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provide an increasingly utilized model of pathogenesis due to clinical manifestations similar to those for HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression, as well as a characteristic rapid disease onset. Comparison of this model with SIV-infected non-CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques also provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of CD8+ cells in viral evolution and population dynamics throughout the duration of infection. Using several different phylogenetic methods, we analyzed viral gp120 sequences obtained from extensive longitudinal sampling of multiple tissues and enriched leukocyte populations from SIVmac251-infected macaques with or without CD8+ lymphocyte depletion. SIV evolutionary and selection patterns in non-CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted animals were characterized by sequential population turnover and continual viral adaptation, a scenario readily comparable to intrahost evolutionary patterns during human HIV infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Alternatively, animals that were depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes exhibited greater variation in population dynamics among tissues and cell populations over the course of infection. Our findings highlight the major role for CD8+ lymphocytes in prolonging disease progression through continual control of SIV subpopulations from various anatomical compartments and the potential for greater independent viral evolutionary behavior among these compartments in response to immune modulation.IMPORTANCE Although developments in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) strategies have successfully prolonged the time to AIDS onset in HIV-1-infected individuals, a functional cure has yet to be found. Improvement of drug interventions for a virus that is able to infect a wide range of tissues and cell types requires a thorough understanding of viral adaptation and infection dynamics within this target milieu. Although it is difficult to accomplish in the human host, longitudinal sampling of multiple anatomical locations is readily accessible in the SIV-infected macaque models of neuro-AIDS. The significance of our research is in identifying the impact of immune modulation, through differing immune selective pressures, on viral evolutionary behavior in a multitude of anatomical compartments. The results provide evidence encouraging the development of a more sophisticated model that considers a network of individual viral subpopulations within the host, with differing infection and transmission dynamics, which is necessary for more effective treatment strategies.

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Accession: 059866642

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