Magnetic sorbents biomineralization on the basis of iron sulphides
Jencarova, J.; Luptakova, A.; Vitkovska, N.; Matysek, D.; Jandacka, P.
Environmental Technology 39(22): 2916-2925
Biomineralization means mineral formation under the influence of organisms. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) constitute an essential role of iron sulphide minerals precipitation. Their composition involves amorphous, non-stoichiometric or crystalline iron sulphides, weakly or strongly magnetic. Variation in environmental conditions can alter the reactive iron species within the mineral, potentially modifying their magnetic properties. Biogenic iron sulphide minerals can be used as heavy metals and toxic ions adsorbents in soil or water remediation. For these reasons, a series of laboratory-scale iron sulphide synthesis experiments with the aim to study the chemical composition, mineralogy and magnetic properties of iron sulphide precipitates were carried out using SRB under various cultivation mode and nutrient medium composition. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed formation of iron sulphides in all biogenic samples and iron phosphates in abiotic controls. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in biomineralized samples confirmed nanocrystalline greigite, mackinawite and sulphur alpha. Magnetic measurements showed that sample prepared by static cultivation without addition of fresh nutrient medium was the most magnetic, magnetic hysteresis of sample formed under semicontinuous mode without any nutrient supply was the lowest. Abiotic samples contained only vivianite and they did not prove any significant response to magnetic field.