Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime) Causes Oxidative Stress-Derived DNA Damage in BALB/c Mice Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum

Moreira, V.Ribeiro.; de Jesus, Lís.Cláudio.Lima.; Soares, R-Eric.Pereira.; Silva, L.Douglas.Miranda.; Pinto, B.Araújo.Serra.; Melo, M.Norma.; Paes, A.Marcus.de.Andrade.; Pereira, S.Regina.Ferreira.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 61(6)

2017


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
PMID: 28320726
DOI: 10.1128/aac.02360-16
Accession: 059956824

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Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by >20 species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania Meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) is the first-choice drug recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of all types of leishmaniasis. However, the mechanisms of action and toxicity of pentavalent antimonials, including genotoxic effects, remain unclear. Therefore, the mechanism by which meglumine antimoniate causes DNA damage was investigated for BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and treated with meglumine antimoniate (20 mg/kg for 20 days). DNA damage was analyzed by a comet assay using mouse leukocytes. Furthermore, comet assays were followed by treatment with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase and endonuclease III, which remove oxidized DNA bases. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the animals' sera were assessed. To investigate mutagenicity, we carried out a micronucleus test. Our data demonstrate that meglumine antimoniate, as well as L. infantum infection, induces DNA damage in mammalian cells by the oxidation of nitrogenous bases. Additionally, the antileishmanial increased the frequency of micronucleated cells, confirming its mutagenic potential. According to our data, both meglumine antimoniate treatment and L. infantum infection promote oxidative stress-derived DNA damage, which promotes overactivation of the SOD-CAT axis, whereas the SOD-GPx axis is inhibited as a probable consequence of glutathione (GSH) depletion. Finally, our data enable us to suggest that a meglumine antimoniate regimen, as recommended by the World Health Organization, would compromise GPx activity, leading to the saturation of antioxidant defense systems that use thiol groups, and might be harmful to patients under treatment.