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Mixed Formulation of Conventional and Pegylated Meglumine Antimoniate-Containing Liposomes Reduces Inflammatory Process and Parasite Burden in Leishmania infantum-Infected BALB/c Mice

Reis, L.Eduardo.Soares.; Fortes de Brito, R.Cristiane.; Cardoso, J.Mirelle.de.Oliveira.; Mathias, F.Augusto.Siqueira.; Aguiar Soares, R.Dian.Oliveira.; Carneiro, C.Martins.; de Abreu Vieira, P.Melo.; Ramos, G.Santos.; Frézard, Fédéric.Jean.Georges.; Roatt, B.Mendes.; Reis, A.Barbosa.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 61(11)

2017


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
PMID: 28827416
DOI: 10.1128/aac.00962-17
Accession: 059977206

Pentavalent antimonial has been the first choice treatment for visceral leishmaniasis; however, it has several side effects that leads to low adherence to treatment. Liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate (MA) arises as an important strategy for chemotherapy enhancement. We evaluated the immunopathological changes using the mixture of conventional and pegylated liposomes with MA. The mice were infected with Leishmania infantum and a single-dose treatment regimen. Comparison was made with groups treated with saline, empty liposomes, free MA, and a liposomal formulation of MA (Lipo MA). Histopathological analyses demonstrated that animals treated with Lipo MA showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory process and the absence of granulomas. The in vitro stimulation of splenocytes showed a significant increase of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) produced by CD8+ T cells and a decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) produced by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the Lipo MA. Furthermore, the Lipo MA group showed an increase in the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. According to the parasite load evaluation using quantitative PCR, the Lipo MA group showed no L. infantum DNA in the spleen (0.0%) and 41.4% in the liver. In addition, we detected a low positive correlation between parasitism and histopathology findings (inflammatory process and granuloma formation). Thus, our results confirmed that Lipo MA is a promising antileishmanial formulation able to reduce the inflammatory response and induce a type 1 immune response, accompanied by a significant reduction of the parasite burden into hepatic and splenic compartments in treated animals.

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