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On a generalized Levinthal's paradox: The role of long- and short range interactions in complex bio-molecular reactions, including protein and DNA folding



On a generalized Levinthal's paradox: The role of long- and short range interactions in complex bio-molecular reactions, including protein and DNA folding



Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 132: 57-79



The current protein folding literature is reviewed. Two main approaches to the problem of folding were selected for this review: geometrical and biophysical. The geometrical approach allows the formulation of topological restrictions on folding, that are usually not taken into account in the construction of physical models. In particular, the topological constraints do not allow the known funnel-like energy landscape modeling, although most common methods of resolving the paradox are based on this method. The very paradox is based on the fact that complex molecules must reach their native conformations (complexes that result from reactions) in an exponentially long time, which clearly contradicts the observed experimental data. In this respect we considered the complexity of the reactions between ligands and proteins. On this general basis, the folding-reaction paradox was reformulated and generalized. We conclude that prospects for solving the paradox should be associated with incorporating a topology aspect in biophysical models of protein folding, through the construction of hybrid models. However, such models should explicitly include long-range force fields and local cell biological conditions, such as structured water complexes and photon/phonon/soliton waves, ordered in discrete frequency bands. In this framework, collective and coherent oscillations in, and between, macromolecules are instrumental in inducing intra- and intercellular resonance, serving as an integral guiding network of life communication: the electrome aspect of the cell. Yet, to identify the actual mechanisms underlying the bonds between molecules (atoms), it will be necessary to perform dedicated experiments to more definitely solve the particular time paradox.

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Accession: 060040683

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PMID: 28951190

DOI: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2017.09.018


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