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Prophylactic efficacy of primaquine for preventing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia in travelers: A meta-analysis and systematic review

Prophylactic efficacy of primaquine for preventing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia in travelers: A meta-analysis and systematic review

Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 17: 5-18

With increased international travel over the world the need for safe and effective chemoprophylaxis for malaria is as great as ever. The choice of regimen is difficult, as effectiveness should be weighted against potential adverse effects. Although, some studies have reported high prophylactic efficacy of primaquine, there is no comprehensive evidence comparing its prophylactic effectiveness as well as toxicity. To fill the gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis study was carried out. Using MeSH terms, 756 records were detected through searching "Pubmed", "Embase","Web of Science"and "Cochrane" databases. From these,7 relevant full-text articles with 14 comparisons for final quantitative meta-analysis were included in our review. In order to make a comparison between the studies, Risk Ratios(RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals(CIs) were estimated. Overall,74% reduction in the incidence of parasitaemia by primaquine versus other prophylactic regimens was estimated(RRoverall = 0.26, CI 95%:0.16-0.41--RRvivax = 0.16, CI 95%:0.07-0.36--RRfalciparum = 0.31, CI 95%:0.18-0.55). The incidence rate ratios for adverse effects showed no statistically significant difference between primaquine and control groups (p > 0.05). For persons without G6PD deficiency, who are not pregnant, primaquine is the most effective presently available prophylactic for P. vivax malaria and comparable to such regimens as doxycycline, mefloquine and atovaquone-proguanil for the prevention of P. falciparum malaria.

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Accession: 060143171

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PMID: 28450185

DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.04.005

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