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Roles of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: selective modulation of microglia polarization to anti-inflammatory phenotype



Roles of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: selective modulation of microglia polarization to anti-inflammatory phenotype



Journal of Neuroinflammation 14(1): 36



Microglia and its polarization play critical roles in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury. Programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 has been reported to regulate neuroimmune cell functions. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 participate in microglia polarization, and programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 could regulate the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1. We herein show the critical role of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in the polarization of microglia during intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rat models. An autologous blood intracerebral hemorrhage model was established in Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 250-300 g), and primary cultured microglia was exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic intracerebral hemorrhage in vitro. Specific siRNAs and pDNA for programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 were exploited both in vivo and in vitro. In the brain tissue around hematoma, the protein levels of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 and the interaction between them, as well as the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, were higher than that of the sham group and collectively peaked at 24 h after intracerebral hemorrhage. Overexpression of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 ameliorated intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury, including brain cell death, neuronal degeneration, and inflammation, while their knockdown induced an opposite effect. In addition, overexpression of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 selectively promoted microglia polarization to anti-inflammation phenotype after intracerebral hemorrhage and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, suggesting that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced increases in programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 maybe a self-help. Enhancing the expressions of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 may induce a selective modulation of microglia polarization to anti-inflammation phenotype for intracerebral hemorrhage treatment.

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Accession: 060218557

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 28196545

DOI: 10.1186/s12974-017-0790-0


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