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Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery and aneurysm formation resulting from segmental arterial mediolysis: a case report



Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery and aneurysm formation resulting from segmental arterial mediolysis: a case report



Diagnostic Pathology 12(1): 74



Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) can lead to bowel ischemia, aneurysm rupture, or even death. Studies have suggested that mechanical or hemodynamic stress on the vascular wall of the SMA may be a contributor, but its pathogenesis is unclear. A 57-year-old Japanese man with a history of untreated hypertension and hyperuricemia was admitted to our hospital with the sudden onset of severe epigastric pain. Laboratory findings showed elevated white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen demonstrated arterial dissection with luminal stenosis and aneurysm formation at the distal portion of the SMA after the branching of the jejunal artery, and intravenous nicardipine was administered. The patient's epigastric pain resolved spontaneously but recurred on day 6 of his hospital stay. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed an enlarged aneurysm with wall thinning. Because of the risk of aneurysm rupture, the decision was made to perform aneurysmectomy and bowel resection on day 6. Histologic examinations revealed two separate dissecting lesions: one latent and the other resulting in aneurysm formation. Both lesions showed characteristics of segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) with lack of arterial media, absence of internal and external elastic laminae and intimal proliferation. Histologic findings in the present case suggest that mechanical or hemodynamic stress on the vascular wall and SAM-related vascular vulnerability may concomitantly contribute to the onset of isolated SMA dissection.

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Accession: 060272200

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29037200

DOI: 10.1186/s13000-017-0664-x


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