Effects of iron supplementation versus dietary iron on the nutritional iron status: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Silva Neto, L.Gonzaga.Ribeiro.; Santos Neto, Jão.Eudes.Dos.; Bueno, N.Bezerra.; de Oliveira, S.Lima.; Ataide, T.da.Rocha.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59(16): 2553-2561
This meta-analysis compared the effects of dietary intervention versus iron supplementation on biochemical parameters related to the iron nutritional status in humans. The PubMed, CENTRAL, LILACS, SCIELO, OPENGREY.EU and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for randomized clinical trials that assigned individuals to a dietary intervention or to an iron supplementation regimen, for 12 weeks or more. The primary outcome was the hemoglobin concentration, and secondary outcomes were ferritin, RDW, mean corpuscular volume, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, serum iron, and transferrin saturation. From the 6095 records identified, twelve studies were included, six with children, five with adolescents/adults, and one with pregnant women. In the subgroup of studies that included anemic/iron deficient children, supplementation significantly increased the hemoglobin concentration (weighted mean difference (WMD): 3.19 g/L [95% CI: 1.31, 5.07]) and induced a significantly greater reduction of the soluble transferrin receptor (WMD: -0.46 mg/L [95% CI: -0.70, -0, 21]), when compared to dietary intervention. It also induced a greater reduction of the total binding capacity of iron in adolescents/adults (WMD: -6.96 μmol/L [95% CI: -12.70, -1.21]). Supplementation showed a better effect on hemoglobin recovery in anemic/iron deficient children, while no differences were observed between supplementation and dietary intervention in treating adolescents/adults.