Emission Characteristics of Particulate Matter, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements from the Combustion of Coals in Mongolia
Barabad, M.L.M.; Jung, W.; Versoza, M.E.; Kim, M.; Ko, S.; Park, D.; Lee, K.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(8)
ISSN/ISBN: 1660-4601 PMID: 30096940 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15081706
This study characterized emissions of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals, and anions from Mongolian bituminous coals in a controlled heating experiment. Three coal samples from Alag Tolgoi (coal 1), Baganuur (coal 2), and Nalaikh (coal 3) were combusted at a constant heat flux of 50 kW/m² using a dual-cone calorimeter. The coal samples were commonly used in ger district of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. PM10 emission factors were 1122.9 ± 526.2, 958.1 ± 584.0, and 472.0 ± 57.1 mg/kg for coal samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. PM with a diameter of 0.35⁻0.45 µm was dominant and accounted for 41, 34, and 48% of the total PM for coal samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The emissions of PM and VOC from coals commonly used in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia were significant enough to cause extremely high levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution.