Effects of chronic exposure to coal-derived oil on freshwater ecosystems: I. Microcosms
Franco, P.J.; Giddings, J.M.; Herbes, S.E.; Hook, L.A.; Newbold, J.D.; Roy, W.K.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 3(3): 447-463
Sixteen 67-liter freshwater microcosms were treated for 8 weeks with an unrefined coal-oil in amounts ranging from 0.03 to 7 ml per week. Phenols make up 95% of the water-soluble compounds in this oil, and dissolved phenol concentrations averaged <0.01 mg L-ˆ’1 in the lowest dose and 10 mg L-ˆ’1 in the highest. The microcosms were severely damaged at the highest treatment level; macrophytes, zooplankton and insects were eliminated, and the ecosystems became anaerobic.