Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant envelope protein 2 antigen for diagnosis of Chikungunya virus
Fumagalli, M.íl.J.; de Souza, W.M.; Espósito, D.L.A.; Silva, A.él.; Romeiro, M.F.; Martinez, E.Z.; da Fonseca, B.A.ôn.L.; Figueiredo, L.T.M.
Virology Journal 15(1): 112
Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus is an important mosquito-borne virus causing outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. The detection of specific antibodies against CHIKV is used for diagnosis after the acute viremic phase of the disease. However, a major challenge for serologic diagnosis of CHIKV and other alphaviruses is the cross-reactivity of antibodies to common antigens among these viruses. In the present study, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbend assay using a recombinant envelope protein 2 of CHIKV produced in Escherichia coli system, as a capture antigen. High titers (1600 to 12,800) of anti-CHIKV antibodies were detected in human sera analyzed by the CHIKV assay, suggesting it may detect low levels of the antibodies presence. On the other side, cross-reactivity was not observed in mouse hyperimmune sera to Mayaro virus and other alphaviruses analyzed by the CHIKV immunosorbend assay, suggesting it is a CHIKV-specific test. Fifty-nine human serum samples of CHIKV infection suspected cases were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) antibodies detection using the CHIKV immunosorbend assay. A total of 44% (26/59) of samples were positive for IgG to CHIKV, determining 89.66% sensitivity and 100% specificity when the assay is compared to a CHIKV-specific neutralization assay. In addition, 40.6% (24/59) of samples were positive for IgM, determining 92.48% sensitivity and 79.04% specificity by a Bayesian method in the absence of a gold standard. Moreover, CHIKV immunosorbend assay showed similar sensibilities to a commercial immunochromatography assay (Lumiquick, USA) for CHIKV IgG and IgM detection. In short, we have developed a rapid, simple, specific and sensitive CHIKV immunosorbend assay for IgG and IgM detection and our results showed potential applicability on the diagnosis of infections by this virus.