+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Estimation of Exposure to Organic Flame Retardants via Hand Wipe, Surface Wipe, and Dust: Comparability of Different Assessment Strategies



Estimation of Exposure to Organic Flame Retardants via Hand Wipe, Surface Wipe, and Dust: Comparability of Different Assessment Strategies



Environmental Science and Technology 52(17): 9946-9953



This study aimed to investigate the exposure of three occupational populations (i.e., office worker, taxi drivers, and security guards) to flame retardants by comparing different sampling approaches (i.e., hand wipe, surface wipe, and dust). Hand wipe samples were collected from 68 participants from three populations in Beijing, China. Dust and/or surface wipes were also sampled from their respective occupational workplaces. Ten phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), two novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed. BDE209, decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (∑TCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were detected in at least 95% of the samples, collectively accounting for over 90% of the total concentrations in each type of samples. Concentrations and composition profiles of flame retardants differed in hand wipes of the three populations with summed level of all target compounds (∑FRs) ranked as taxi drivers > office workers > security guards. Most FRs in hand wipes were significantly correlated with those in surface wipes, whereas the correlations between hand wipes and dust are weak. Estimated exposure to FRs via dust ingestion and dermal absorption for each population varied when using different types of samples for exposure assessment, suggesting the importance of sampling strategy selection. Estimation via hand wipes indicated that taxi drivers were subjected to greater exposure to PFRs among three populations, while office workers were subjected to greater BFR exposure. Our data suggest hand wipes have the potential of being standardized into a noninvasive method for evaluating human exposure to environmental contaminants across different populations.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 062699529

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30099872

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b02723


Related references

Estimation of human exposure to halogenated flame retardants through dermal adsorption by skin wipe. Chemosphere (): -, 2016

Estimation of human exposure to halogenated flame retardants through dermal adsorption by skin wipe. Chemosphere 168: 272-278, 2017

Air, hand wipe, and surface wipe sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 14(11): 882-897, 2017

Assessment of dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants: Comparison using direct measurements from hand wipes with an indirect estimation from settled dust concentrations. Environment International 115: 285-294, 2018

Assessment of dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants: Comparison using direct measurements from hand wipes with an indirect estimation from settled dust concentrations. Environment International 115: 285-294, 2018

Revisiting the hand wipe versus gel rub debate: is a higher-ethanol content hand wipe more effective than an ethanol gel rub?. American Journal of Infection Control 38(9): 678-682, 2010

Surface wipe and bulk sampling of household dust: arsenic exposure in Cornwall, UK. Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts 20(3): 505-512, 2018

Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy. Environmental Science and Technology 50(14): 7752-7760, 2016

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and resulting exposure in homes in California: relationships among passive air, surface wipe and dust concentrations, and temporal variability. Indoor Air 25(2): 220-229, 2015

Potential human exposure to halogenated flame-retardants in elevated surface dust and floor dust in an academic environment. Environmental Research 153: 55-62, 2017

The use of composite dust wipe samples as a means of assessing lead exposure. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 60(3): 326-333, 1999

Evaluation of wipe sampling materials for lead in surface dust. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 55(4): 339-342, 1994

Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in body wipes and house dust, and an estimation of house dust hand-loadings in Dutch toddlers. Environmental Research 158: 789-797, 2017

Monitoring indoor exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: hand wipes and house dust. Environmental Health Perspectives 123(2): 160-165, 2015

Analyzing towel costs: Wipe-up or wipe-out?. School foodservice journal 34(4): 91, 1980