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Evidence That Environmental and Familial Risks for Psychosis Additively Impact a Multidimensional Subthreshold Psychosis Syndrome



Evidence That Environmental and Familial Risks for Psychosis Additively Impact a Multidimensional Subthreshold Psychosis Syndrome



Schizophrenia Bulletin 44(4): 710-719



The observed link between positive psychotic experiences (PE) and psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) may be stronger depending on concomitant presence of PE with other dimensions of psychopathology. We examined whether the effect of common risk factors for PSD on PE is additive and whether the impact of risk factors on the occurrence of PE depends on the co-occurrence of other symptom dimensions (affective dysregulation, negative symptoms, and cognitive alteration). Data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study 2 were used. Risk factors included childhood adversity, cannabis use, urbanicity, foreign born, hearing impairment, and family history of affective disorders. Logistic regression models were applied to test (1) the additive effect of risk factors (4 levels) on PE and (2) the moderating effects of symptom dimensions on the association between risk factors (present/absent) and PE, using additive interaction, expressed as the interaction contrast ratio. Risk factors were additive: the greater the number of risk factors, the greater the odds of PE. Furthermore, concomitant presence of the other symptom dimensions all increased the impact of risk factors on PE. After controlling for age, sex, and education, only affective dysregulation and negative symptoms remained significant moderators; only affective dysregulation remained a significant moderator if all dimensions were adjusted for each other. Risk factors may not be directly associated with PE but additively give rise to a multidimensional subthreshold state anticipating the multidimensional clinical syndrome. Early motivational and cognitive impairments in the context of PE may be reducible to affective dysregulation.

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Accession: 063602021

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29701807

DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sby051


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