The so-called indentation stiffness tomography technique for detecting the interior mechanical properties of an elastic sample with an inhomogeneity is analyzed in the framework of the asymptotic modeling approach under the assumption of small size of the inhomogeneity. In particular, it is assumed that the inhomogeneity size and the size of contact area under the indenter are small compared with the distance between them. By the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the first-order asymptotic solution to the corresponding frictionless unilateral contact problem is obtained. The case of an elastic half-space containing a small spherical inhomogeneity has been studied in detail. Based on the grid indentation technique, a procedure for solving the inverse problem of extracting the inhomogeneity parameters is proposed.