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Factors Associated with Prescribing Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics for Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Ambulatory Care Settings



Factors Associated with Prescribing Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics for Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Ambulatory Care Settings



Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics 12: 1179556518784300



Broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed for children with upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics leads to the emergence of resistant bacteria. This study aimed to identify factors associated with prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics among children younger than 18 years presenting with URI in outpatient settings. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-Outpatient Departments (NHAMCS-OPD) between 2006 and 2010. Descriptive statistics of visits from children with URI were estimated. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. We also completed a stratified analysis by age (⩽2 vs >2). A total of 4013 outpatient visits for children with URI from both NAMCS and NHAMCS-0PD data were examined. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed in 39% of the visits, accounting for an estimated 6.8 million visits annually. Multivariable analysis showed that visits in the South region (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-4.10) compared with the West region and visits with diagnoses of acute sinusitis (OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.63) and acute otitis media (OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.32-2.74) compared with those with acute pharyngitis were associated with greater odds of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. The prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics is common for children with URI in ambulatory care settings. Diagnosis and management of URI remain a critical area for awareness campaigns promoting judicious use of antibiotics.

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Accession: 064739762

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PMID: 30046262

DOI: 10.1177/1179556518784300


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