Hepatic fibropoiesis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum treated with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol
Castro, R.S.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pereira, R.A.; Silva, S.M.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Pinto, A.J.W.; Azevedo, E.G.; Demicheli, C.; Caliari, M.M.V.; Mosser, D.M.; Michalick, M.S.M.; Frezard, F.éd.ér.J.G.; Tafuri, W.L.
Veterinary Parasitology 250: 22-29
Hepatic fibropoiesis in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) were evaluated by histological (morphometrical collagen deposition) and immunohistochemical assays characterizing alpha-actin (α-SMA), vimentin, calprotectin (L1 antigen), and TGF-β in 46 naturally infected dogs with Leishmania infantum treated with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol separately and in combination. Six treatment groups were defined: meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in nanometric liposomes (LMA), allopurinol (ALLOP); liposome-encapsulated meglumine antomoniate combined with allopurinol (LMA+ALLOP); empty liposomes (LEMP); empty liposomes combined with allopurinol (LEMP+ALLOP) and saline. Relative liver weight was lower in LMA, LMA+ALLOP, and ALLOP groups compared to the LEMP control. Significantly lower granulomatous chronic inflammatory reaction was seen in the ALLOP group compared to a control group. Calprotectin was lowest in liver of those dogs showing lower numbers of intralobular hepatic granulomas. Collagen deposits were significantly higher in LMA compared to ALLOP, LEMP+ALLOP, and Saline groups. LMA+ALLOP group collagen deposition was higher than dogs treated only with allopurinol. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant higher α-SMA in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), hepatic perisinusoidal cells, in control groups than LMA+ALLOP and LEMP+ALLOP. Alpha-actin and Vimentin positive cells were diffusely distributed throughout the liver parenchyma in the hepatic lobule, mainly in HSCs. Vimentin expression was significantly higher in the saline group than in the ALLOP group. Our data suggest that allopurinol inhibits HSC and results in lower collagen deposits in liver during CVL progression, as supported by the significantly lower expression of TGF-β in the ALLOP group compared to other groups. Results demonstrated that treatment with allopurinol inhibited chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction and hepatic fibrosis in CVL.