+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

High Prevalence of Lipid Abnormalities and Insulin Resistance Among Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-infected Children in India



High Prevalence of Lipid Abnormalities and Insulin Resistance Among Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-infected Children in India



Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 37(3): 253-257



As large numbers of children are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India, we evaluated the dietary intake, growth pattern and risk of metabolic complications like dyslipidemia and insulin resistance among ART-naïve HIV-infected children (CLHIV). CLHIV 2-12 years of age, at the time of initiating ART in Chennai and Bangalore, were assessed for their dietary intake, anthropometry, blood CD4 cell count, HIV-1 viral load, fasting serum lipids, glucose and insulin. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance was derived. Three hundred and ninety CLHIV (mean age [SD]: 8 [3] yrs; median viral load: 141,000 [25,876-436,000] copies/mL) were started on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART. Perinatal infection was documented among 97%. Sixty percent of children were in stage 3 or 4 of World Health Organization clinical staging of HIV/AIDS. Food insecurity was seen in 40% of households. A total of 204 children (52.4%) were stunted and 224 (57.6%) were underweight. Stunting seemed to be more prevalent with increasing age (0-4 years: 48%; >9 years: 60%). Mean intakes of calories, iron, folate and calcium were significantly less than recommended dietary allowances across all age groups. Dyslipidemia, in terms of any abnormal triglycerides or total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (excluding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), was seen in approximately 40% of children; insulin resistance in 17%; and C-reactive protein in risk range of metabolic syndrome in 24% of children. In the background of high food insecurity and malnutrition, cardiometabolic abnormalities were seen in 20%-35% of ART-naïve CLHIV in India emphasizing close monitoring of these children for long-term cardiovascular morbidities after initiation of ART.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 065195238

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29189659

DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001829


Related references

High prevalence of lipid abnormalities among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected Asian children with mild-to-moderate immunosuppression. Antiviral Therapy 16(8): 1351-1355, 2012

High Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance in HIV-infected Prepubertal African Children on Antiretroviral Therapy. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 35(1): E1-E7, 2016

Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance and resistance-associated mutations in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected individuals from 40 United States cities. HIV Clinical Trials 8(1): 1-8, 2007

Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients: implications for routine resistance screening before initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40(3): 468-474, 2005

High HIV-1 Diversity and Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Pregnant Women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 33(1): 68-73, 2016

Prevalence of genotypic resistance to nucleoside analogues in antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Spain. Aids 12(9): 1015-1020, 1998

High prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities in older HIV-infected children taking antiretroviral therapy. Aids 32(18): 2739-2748, 2018

Prevalence of drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected treatment-naive children in Pune, India. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 30(3): 294-298, 2014

Malnutrition and lipid abnormalities in antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa: A cross-sectional study. Plos One 13(4): E0195942, 2018

Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected naive children: rare protease inhibitor resistance mutations but high lamivudine/emtricitabine resistance at the time of virologic failure. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 30(8): 684-688, 2011

Prevalence of genotypic resistance among antiretroviral drug-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Belgium. Antiviral Therapy 6(1): 63-70, 2001

Renal abnormalities among HIV-infected, antiretroviral naive children, Harare, Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study. Bmc Pediatrics 13: 75, 2013

Prevalence of antiretroviral resistance in a South London cohort of treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients. Aids 15(8): 1082-1084, 2001

The prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in China. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 53 Suppl 1: S10-S14, 2010

Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among treatment-naive and treated HIV-infected patients in Venezuela. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 104(3): 522-525, 2009