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Impact of Genetic Polymorphism in the β2-Receptor Gene on Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

Impact of Genetic Polymorphism in the β2-Receptor Gene on Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 103(8): 2901-2908

Severe hypoglycemic events are unevenly distributed in people with type 1 diabetes, making a genetic influence probable. Of the common adrenoceptor β-2 receptor gene (ADRB2) polymorphisms, the Arg16 allele is associated with receptor downregulation and reduced agonist-mediated endogenous glucose production. We tested the hypothesis that the Arg16 variant is associated with severe hypoglycemia. A cohort of 311 patients with type 1 diabetes reported severe hypoglycemic events retrospectively in a validated questionnaire. The patients were characterized by diabetes history, state of hypoglycemia awareness, C-peptide status, HbA1c, and ADRB2 genotype. The ADRB2 Gly16Arg genotype distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The rate of severe hypoglycemia differed among all genotypes (P = 0.01). Patients homozygous for the Arg16 genotype (AA; n = 60) had a relative rate (RR) of severe hypoglycemia of 2.2 (95% CI, 1.3 to 3.6) compared with patients homozygous for the Gly16 genotype (GG; n = 116; P = 0.002). Among patients with impaired awareness or unawareness (n = 175), those with the AA genotype (n = 33) had an RR of severe hypoglycemia of 3.2 (95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0) compared with patients with the GG genotype (n = 58; P < 0.000). Genotype was not associated with state of hypoglycemia awareness per se, as assessed by any of three classification methods. The difference was not explained by other risk factors. Genetic polymorphism in ADRB2 is associated with risk of severe hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes, especially in those with impaired hypoglycemia awareness.

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Accession: 065222189

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PMID: 29757443

DOI: 10.1210/jc.2017-02739

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