Laboratory evolution of a glucose-phosphorylation-deficient, arabinose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain reveals mutations in GAL2 that enable glucose-insensitive l-arabinose uptake
Verhoeven, M.D.; Bracher, J.M.; Nijland, J.G.; Bouwknegt, J.; Daran, J.-M.G.; Driessen, A.J.M.; van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.
Fems Yeast Research 18(6)
ISSN/ISBN: 1567-1364 PMID: 29860442 DOI: 10.1093/femsyr/foy062
Cas9-assisted genome editing was used to construct an engineered glucose-phosphorylation-negative S. cerevisiae strain, expressing the Lactobacillus plantaruml-arabinose pathway and the Penicillium chrysogenum transporter PcAraT. This strain, which showed a growth rate of 0.26 h-1 on l-arabinose in aerobic batch cultures, was subsequently evolved for anaerobic growth on l-arabinose in the presence of d-glucose and d-xylose. In four strains isolated from two independent evolution experiments the galactose-transporter gene GAL2 had been duplicated, with all alleles encoding Gal2N376T or Gal2N376I substitutions. In one strain, a single GAL2 allele additionally encoded a Gal2T89I substitution, which was subsequently also detected in the independently evolved strain IMS0010. In 14C-sugar-transport assays, Gal2N376S, Gal2N376T and Gal2N376I substitutions showed a much lower glucose sensitivity of l-arabinose transport and a much higher Km for d-glucose transport than wild-type Gal2. Introduction of the Gal2N376I substitution in a non-evolved strain enabled growth on l-arabinose in the presence of d-glucose. Gal2N376T, T89I and Gal2T89I variants showed a lower Km for l-arabinose and a higher Km for d-glucose than wild-type Gal2, while reverting Gal2N376T, T89I to Gal2N376 in an evolved strain negatively affected anaerobic growth on l-arabinose. This study indicates that optimal conversion of mixed-sugar feedstocks may require complex 'transporter landscapes', consisting of sugar transporters with complementary kinetic and regulatory properties.