+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Military Trauma and Surgical Procedures in Conflict Area: A Review for the Utilization of Forward Surgical Team

Military Trauma and Surgical Procedures in Conflict Area: A Review for the Utilization of Forward Surgical Team

Military Medicine 183(3-4): E97-E106

Forward surgical teams (FSTs) have been used as highly mobile surgical facilities that provide "damage control" medical support in modern wars. FST regiments differ greatly in different armed services and nations. We systemically reviewed the utilization of FSTs around the world with an emphasis on the medical conditions and workloads encountered by FSTs in modern wars. We searched for terms related to FSTs, such as "Forward Surgical Team" and "Field Surgical Team," in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and MEDLINE databases and collected any articles that provided numerical data on the organization of medical personnel combat casualty characteristics, including the casualty composition, injury types and locations, and mechanisms of injury, and surgical procedures performed. Technical articles, case reports of specific types of injury or disease, and literature reviews of previous experiences and logistical theories were discarded. We identified 24 articles involving 29 FSTs that were included in the analysis. The FSTs were typically composed of 8-20 medical personnel and had limited medical capacity. Battle-related injuries constituted approximately two-thirds of all injury types treated by the FSTs. The extremities, torso, and head and neck were the three most frequently injured sites and accounted for approximately 51.1%, 16.6%, and 13.2% of all wounds, respectively. The three most frequent injury mechanisms were fragments or explosive injuries (44.8%), gunshot wounds (28.1%), and motor vehicle accidents/road traffic accidents (9.1%). Soft tissue surgeries (41.0%) and orthopedic operations (31.6%) were the two procedures that were most frequently performed by the FSTs. The average numbers of surgical procedures performed by small FSTs (1.27/unit·day) and full FSTs (1.28/unit·day) seemed to be comparable. Modern conflict may require more flexible small FSTs, especially during the initial phases of war. More orthopedic surgeons should be included in FSTs, and orthopedic skill training should be intensified before deployment. The utilization of FSTs and level III facilities must be evaluated within the context of the battlefield conditions, medical care requirements, and evacuation efficiency.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 065319382

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29514345

DOI: 10.1093/milmed/usx048

Related references

The 912th forward surgical team in Operation New Dawn: employment of the forward surgical team during troop withdrawal under combat conditions. Military Medicine 177(11): 1267-1271, 2013

A military surgeon questions the value of a forward austere surgical team. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 203(2): 262-263, 2006

Military nursing at the forefront: the Army Forward Surgical Team. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America 15(2): 193-200, 2003

A US military Role 2 forward surgical team database study of combat mortality in Afghanistan. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 85(3): 603-612, 2018

The Golden Hour Offset Surgical Treatment Team Operational Concept: Experience of the 102nd Forward Surgical Team in Operation Freedom's Sentinel 2015-2016. Journal of Special Operations Medicine 17(3): 46-50, 2017

Experiences of medical care with the 250th Forward Surgical Team (Airborne) during a military operation into Northern Iraq in 2003. Military Medicine 172(2): 127, 2007

Forward Surgical Team Experience (FSTE) Is Associated With Increased Confidence With Combat Surgeon Trauma Skills. Military Medicine 183(7-8): E257-E260, 2018

Combat trauma experience with the United States Army 102nd Forward Surgical Team in Afghanistan. American Journal of Surgery 187(5): 652-654, 2004

Entry-Level Forward Surgical Team Training in 5th Grade Students of Second Military Medical University of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. World Journal of Surgery, 2017

Recent Advances in Forward Surgical Team Training at the U.S. Army Trauma Training Department. Military Medicine 181(6): 553-559, 2018

Humanitarian Surgical Care Provided by a French Forward Surgical Team: Ten Years of Providing Medical Support to the Population of the Ivory Coast. Military Medicine 180(10): 1075-1082, 2015

Exposure of the surgical team to ionizing radiation during orthopedic surgical procedures. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia 49(3): 227-232, 2014

The 7th French Airborne Forward Surgical Team experience of surgical support to the population of a low-income country: a prospective study on 341 patients with short-term follow-up. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 164(6): 423-427, 2018

Trauma experience comparison of army forward surgical team surgeons at Ben Taub Hospital and Madigan Army Medical Center(2)(2). Current Surgery 58(1): 90-93, 2001

The Surgical Resuscitation Team: surgical trauma support for U.S. Army Special Operations Forces. Journal of Special Operations Medicine 9(4): 20-25, 2010