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Misdistribution of iron and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease

Misdistribution of iron and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease

Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2018

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared to the general population. Systemic inflammation associated with oxidative stress could be an important determinant of morbidity and mortality associated with CVD. We suspected that dysregulation of iron metabolism should be considered in these patients. Anemia is prevalent in CKD patients and is often treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron. In addition, iron administration sometimes causes iron overdose. Excessive iron in the cytosol and mitochondria can accelerate the formation of a highly toxic reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. In this review, we propose the following four major reasons for oxidative stress in CKD patients: 1) iron is sequestered in cells by proinflammatory cytokines and hepcidin; 2) the reduction in frataxin increases "free" iron in mitochondria; 3) the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid, a heme precursor, has toxic effects on iron and mitochondrial metabolism; and 4) the elevated levels of the metabolic hormone, leptin, promote hepatic hepcidin production. Although an efficient therapy for preventing oxidative stress in these patients has not yet been well defined, we propose that ESAs for renal anemia may ameliorate these causes of oxidative stress. Further clinical trials are necessary to clarify the effectiveness of ESAs on oxidative stress in CKD patients.

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Accession: 065322279

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29958932

DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.06.025

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