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People who experience seclusion in adult mental health inpatient services: An examination of health of the nation outcome scales scores



People who experience seclusion in adult mental health inpatient services: An examination of health of the nation outcome scales scores



International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 2018



The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales (HoNOS) provides an overview of a person's behaviour, impairment, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. This study investigated the profile of people who had been secluded in New Zealand's adult mental health inpatient services using 12 individual HoNOS ratings. Routinely collected clinical data were extracted from the Programme for the Integration of Mental Health Data (PRIMHD). This is the national data set for mental health and addiction services. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data which adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, bed nights, compulsory treatment, and district health board. After adjustment, three HoNOS items significantly predicted the risk of seclusion: overactive, aggressive, disruptive, or agitated behaviour (adjusted OR = 4.82, 95% CI [3.88, 5.97], P < 0.001); problem drinking or drug-taking (adjusted OR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.25, 1.82], P < 0.001); and problems with hallucinations and delusions (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.09, 1.63], P = 0.006). In addition, two HoNOS items were protective for seclusion: nonaccidental self-injury (adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.51, 0.83], P < 0.001) and depressed mood (adjusted OR = 0.58, 95% CI [0.47, 0.72], P < 0.001). Thus, responding effectively to agitation and/or aggression, substance use, and psychosis plays an important role in reducing the use of seclusion. Mental health nurses and other workers can reduce seclusion through early assessment, effective communication, de-escalation techniques, reduction tools, trauma-informed care, and consulting with consumers and whānau.

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Accession: 065395439

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30010239

DOI: 10.1111/inm.12521


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