Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch)

Dehkordi, A.Nikbakht.; Rubio, M.; Babaeian, N.; Albacete, A.; Martínez-Gómez, P.

Viruses 10(5)

2018


ISSN/ISBN: 1999-4915
PMID: 29751564
DOI: 10.3390/v10050238
Accession: 065408712

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Abstract
Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA₃ and GA₄; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA₃ and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting "Garrigues" almond onto the PPV-inoculated "GF305" peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA₃ and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates.