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Prevalence, associated factors, outcomes and transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study



Prevalence, associated factors, outcomes and transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study



Clinical Microbiology and Infection 24(8): 889-895



To describe the prevalence, associated factors, treatment outcomes and transmission of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, for 2011 to 2013. Drug susceptibility testing to first- and second-line drugs was performed by BACTEC MGIT 960 and molecular typing, by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism. Clinical, epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from surveillance information systems for TB. Patients were divided into three groups: multidrug resistant (MDR) TB (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), pre-XDR-TB (MDR-TB resistant to a fluoroquinolone or to at least one of the second-line injectable drugs) and XDR-TB (MDR-TB resistant to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one of the second-line injectables). Among the 313 MDR-TB patients identified, the prevalence of XDR-TB and pre-XDR-TB was 10.2% (n = 32) and 19.2% (n = 60), respectively. Compared to MDR-TB patients, XDR-TB patients were more likely to be female (odds ratio (OR) = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-5.83), have a history of TB (OR = 5.16; 95% CI, 1.52-17.51) and present higher death rates (OR= 3.74; 95% CI 1.70-8.25). XDR-TB transmission was observed in households, between neighbours and between a patient and a healthcare worker in a hospital. The prevalence of XDR-TB in the state of São Paulo is close to that estimated globally. Most of the XDR-TB patients were treated previously for TB and presented the lowest successful outcome rates. Because transmission of XDR-TB occurred, it is important that timely diagnosis of drug resistance is performed.

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Accession: 065430972

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PMID: 29175351

DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.11.015


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