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Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children



Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children



Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico 73(4): 228-236



The prevalence of pediatric urolithiasis varies from 0.01-0.03%. Urolithiasis may be caused by anatomical, metabolic and environmental factors. Recurrence varies between 16 to 67%, and it is frequently associated with metabolic abnormalities. The objective of the present work was the identification of risk factors that promote urolithiasis in a child population. This study included 162 children with urolithiasis and normal renal function (mean age 7.5 years). Risk factors were investigated in two stages. In the first stage, 24-hour urine, and blood samples were analyzed to assess metabolic parameters and urinary tract infection. During the second stage, the effect of calcium restriction and a calcium load on renal Ca excretion were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed. Urolithiasis was observed in 0.02% of children, 50% of them with family history of urinary stones. There were multiple risk factors for urolithiasis including hypocitraturia (70%), hypomagnesuria (42%), hypercalciuria (37%; in 11/102 was by intestinal hyperabsorption, in 13/102 was unclassified. Ca resorption or renal Ca leak were not detected). We also detected alkaline urine (21%), systemic metabolic acidosis (20%), urinary infections (16%), nephrocalcinosis with urolithiasis (11%), oliguria (8%), urinary tract anomalies, hyperuricosemia and hypermagnesemia (7% each one), hypercalcemia (6%), hyperoxaluria (2%) and hypercystinuria (0.61%). Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.

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Accession: 065485806

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PMID: 29421385

DOI: 10.1016/j.bmhimx.2016.05.006


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