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Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid Pathways are Activated in Spatially Different Domains Around the Infection Site During Effector-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana



Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid Pathways are Activated in Spatially Different Domains Around the Infection Site During Effector-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana



Plant and Cell Physiology 59(1): 8-16



The innate immune response is, in the first place, elicited at the site of infection. Thus, the host response can be different among the infected cells and the cells surrounding them. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI), a form of innate immunity in plants, is triggered by specific recognition between pathogen effectors and their corresponding plant cytosolic immune receptors, resulting in rapid localized cell death known as hypersensitive response (HR). HR cell death is usually limited to a few cells at the infection site, and is surrounded by a few layers of cells massively expressing defense genes such as Pathogenesis-Related Gene 1 (PR1). This virtually concentric pattern of the cellular responses in ETI is proposed to be regulated by a concentration gradient of salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone accumulated around the infection site. Recent studies demonstrated that jasmonic acid (JA), another phytohormone known to be mutually antagonistic to SA in many cases, is also accumulated in and required for ETI, suggesting that ETI is a unique case. However, the molecular basis for this uniqueness remained largely to be solved. Here, we found that, using intravital time-lapse imaging, the JA signaling pathway is activated in the cells surrounding the central SA-active cells around the infection sites in Arabidopsis thaliana. This distinct spatial organization explains how these two phythormone pathways in a mutually antagonistic relationship can be activated simultaneously during ETI. Our results re-emphasize that the spatial consideration is a key strategy to gain mechanistic insights into the apparently complex signaling cross-talk in immunity.

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Accession: 065495149

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PMID: 29177423

DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcx181


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