Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Ligand-Binding Domain of an Orphan Nuclear Receptor Reveal a Dynamic Helix in the Ligand-Binding Pocket

Daffern, N.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Pick, L.; Radhakrishnan, I.

Biochemistry 57(13): 1977-1986


ISSN/ISBN: 1520-4995
PMID: 29547262
DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.8b00069
Accession: 065523603

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The ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the NR5A subfamily of nuclear receptors activate transcription via ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms. The Drosophila Ftz-F1 receptor (NR5A3) belongs to the latter category, and its ligand independence is attributed to a short helical segment (α6) within the protein that resides in the canonical ligand-binding pocket (LBP) in the crystalline state. Here, we show that the α6 helix is dynamic in solution when Ftz-F1 is bound to the LxxLL motif of its cofactor Ftz, undergoing motions on the fast (picosecond to nanosecond) as well as slow (microsecond to millisecond) time scales. Motions on the slow time scale (∼10-3 s) appear to pervade throughout the domain, most prominently in the LBP and residues at or near the cofactor-binding site. We ascribe the fast time scale motions to a solvent-accessible conformation for the α6 helix akin to those described for its orthologs in higher organisms. We assign this conformation where the LBP is "open" to a lowly populated species, while the major conformer bears the properties of the crystal structure where the LBP is "closed". We propose that these conformational transitions could allow binding to small molecule ligands and/or play a role in dissociation of the cofactor from the binding site. Indeed, we show that the Ftz-F1 LBD can bind phospholipids, not unlike its orthologs. Our studies provide the first detailed insights into intrinsic motions occurring on a variety of time scales in a nuclear receptor LBD and reveal that potentially functionally significant motions pervade throughout the domain in solution, despite evidence to the contrary implied by the crystal structure.