+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The Innate Immune System in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Role of Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation



The Innate Immune System in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Role of Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation



Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 24(8): 1649-1659



The gastrointestinal tract harbors the largest microbiota load in the human body, hence maintaining a delicate balance between immunity against invading pathogens and tolerance toward commensal. Such immune equilibrium, or intestinal homeostasis, is conducted by a tight regulation and cooperation of the different branches of the immune system, including the innate and the adaptive immune system. However, several factors affect this delicate equilibrium, ultimately leading to gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, here we decided to review the currently available information about innate immunity lymphocyte subsets playing a role in intestinal inflammation. Intestinal innate lymphocytes are composed of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). While IELs can be divided into natural or induced, ILCs can be classified into type 1, 2, or 3, resembling, respectively, the properties of TH1, TH2, or TH17 adaptive lymphocytes. Noteworthy, the phenotype and function of both IELs and ILCs are disrupted under inflammatory conditions, where they help to exacerbate intestinal immune responses. The modulation of both IELs and ILCs to control intestinal inflammatory responses represents a major challenge, as they provide tight regulation among the epithelium, the microbiota, and the adaptive immune system. An improved understanding of the innate immunity mechanisms involved in gastrointestinal inflammation would therefore aid in the diagnosis and further treatment of gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 065593320

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29788271

DOI: 10.1093/ibd/izy177


Related references

Isolation and Flow Cytometry Analysis of Innate Lymphoid Cells from the Intestinal Lamina Propria. Methods in Molecular Biology 1559: 255-265, 2018

Divergent Roles of Interferon-γ and Innate Lymphoid Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Cell-Mediated Intestinal Inflammation. Frontiers in Immunology 9: 23, 2018

Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas 106(5): 334-345, 2016

Interleukin-12 and -23 Control Plasticity of CD127(+) Group 1 and Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Intestinal Lamina Propria. Immunity 43(1): 146-160, 2015

Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes prevent pathogen-driven inflammation and regulate the Smad/T-bet pathway of lamina propria CD4+ T cells. European Journal of Immunology 34(4): 1059-1067, 2004

Regulatory Innate Lymphoid Cells Control Innate Intestinal Inflammation. Cell 171(1): 201-216.E18, 2017

Depletion of lamina propria innate lymphoid cells in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 30(12): 1160-1161, 2015

Innate lymphoid cells in homeostasis, infection, chronic inflammation and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 29(6): 581-587, 2014

Human intestinal lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes express receptors specific for chemokines induced by inflammation. European Journal of Immunology 30(3): 819-826, 2000

Role of Murine Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria Lymphocytes against Primary and Challenge Infections with Cryptosporidium parvum. The Journal of Parasitology 89(2): 270-275, 2003

Role of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes against primary and challenge infections with Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Parasitology 89(2): 270-275, 2003

Lamina propria group 2 innate lymphoid cells impair the antibacterial defense of burned mice to enterococcal translocation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 102(6): 1451-1460, 2017

Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Controlling Maintenance and Functional Programs of RORγt(+) Innate Lymphoid Cells and Intraepithelial Lymphocytes. Frontiers in Immunology 3: 124, 2012

Antigen-specific effector CD4 T lymphocytes school lamina propria dendritic cells to transfer innate tolerance. Journal of Immunology 190(12): 6004-6014, 2013

The characterization of intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria leukocytes, and isolated lymphoid follicles in the large intestine of mice infected with the intestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Journal of Immunology 175(10): 6713-6722, 2005