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An evaluation of off-axis manual forces and upper extremity joint moments during unilateral pushing and pulling exertions


An evaluation of off-axis manual forces and upper extremity joint moments during unilateral pushing and pulling exertions



Ergonomics 62(1): 52-64



ISSN/ISBN: 0014-0139

PMID: 30227781

DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2018.1525501

This study quantified changes in off-axis manual force production and upper extremity joint moments during sub-maximal one-handed push and pull tasks. Off-axis forces in the up/down and left/right directions were quantified in the presence or absence of constraints placed upon the direction of manual force application and/or arm posture. Resultant off-axis forces of 13.1% and 9.4% were produced for pulls and pushes, respectively. Off-axis forces during pulling were oriented downwards and to the right and were associated with a decreased should flexion moment when posture was constrained. Off-axis forces in the up/down direction were minimized with increased on-axis force level. Off-axis forces during pushing tended to be oriented to the left and were associated with increased elbow flexion moment when off-axis forces were allowed. By not accounting for these off-axis forces, we may not be accurately reflecting actionable muscle- and joint-level loading characteristics derived from biomechanically-based proactive ergonomics assessment approaches. Practitioner Summary: Constrained arm postures and directions of manual force application influence the production of off-axis forces. As inaccurate estimation of true manual forces can markedly influence actionable outcomes of proactive ergonomic assessments, this study suggests that simplification of these estimates is insufficient and potentially misleading.

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Accession: 065689625

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