Complementary feeding may pose a risk of simultaneous exposures to aflatoxin M1 and deoxynivalenol in Indian infants and toddlers: Lessons from a mini-survey of food samples obtained from Kolkata, India
Gummadidala, P.M.; Omebeyinje, M.H.; Burch, J.A.; Chakraborty, P.; Biswas, P.K.; Banerjee, K.; Wang, Q.; Jesmin, R.; Mitra, C.; Moeller, P.D.R.; Scott, G.I.; Chanda, A.
Food and Chemical Toxicology An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 123: 9-15
ISSN/ISBN: 0278-6915 PMID: 30300722 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.006
A mini-survey of 29 different foods produced by 21 different Indian manufacturers was conducted for the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, aflatoxin M1 and deoxynivalenol. The products were purchased from local markets in Kolkata, India and commonly used in the complementary feeding of infants and toddlers in India. Using a previously established direct competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for this analysis we show that 100% of the samples contained aflatoxin M1 at levels exceeding the recommended European Union levels of 25 ng kg-1 by more than an order of magnitude. Also, several (66%) of them contained detectable concentrations of deoxynivalenol with two samples (6.9%) exceeding European Union guidelines for baby food products (200 μg kg-1) and 51.7% samples with DON levels that can lead to dietary intake higher than 1 μg kg-1 recommended by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives. None of the samples contained aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The results, therefore, suggest that complementary feeding can put Indian infants and toddlers at risk of simultaneous exposures to deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin M1 and warrant an urgent in-depth research to track, increase surveillance and reduce mycotoxin contamination of baby foods manufactured in India.