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Dog survey in Russian veterinary hospitals: tick identification and molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens

Livanova, N.N.; Fomenko, N.V.; Akimov, I.A.; Ivanov, M.J.; Tikunova, N.V.; Armstrong, R.; Konyaev, S.V.

Parasites and Vectors 11(1): 591

2018


ISSN/ISBN: 1756-3305
PMID: 30428925
DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-3161-5
Accession: 065759206

Species of Canidae in Russia can be infested with up to 24 different tick species; however, the frequency of different tick species infesting domestic dogs across Russia is not known. In addition, tick-borne disease risks for domestic dogs in Russia are not well quantified. The goal of this study was to conduct a nationwide survey of ticks collected from infested dogs admitted to veterinary clinics in Russian cities and to identify pathogens found in these ticks. Ticks feeding on dogs admitted to 32 veterinary clinics in 27 major cities across Russia were preserved in ethanol and submitted to a central facility for examination. After identification, each tick was evaluated for infection with known tick-borne pathogens using PCR. There were 990 individual ticks collected from 636 dogs. All collected ticks belonged to the Ixodidae (hard ticks) and represented 11 species of four genera, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis. Four most common tick species were D. reticulatus, followed by I. persulcatus, I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. Ixodes persulcatus ticks were found to be infected with 10 different pathogens, and ticks of this species were more frequently infected than either D. reticulatus or I. ricinus. Ixodes persulcatus females were also more frequently co-infected with two or more pathogens than any other tick. Pathogenic species of five genera were detected in ticks: Anaplasma centrale, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale; Babesia canis, B. microti, B. venatorum, B. divergens, B. crassa and B. vogeli; Borrelia miyamotoi, B. afzelii and B. garinii; Ehrlichia muris, E. canis and E. ruminantum; and Theileria cervi. Anaplasma marginale, E. canis, B. crassa, B. vogeli and T. cervi were detected in I. persulcatus, and Babesia canis in D. marginatum, for the first time in Russia. Multiple ticks from four genera and 11 species of the family Ixodidae were collected from domestic dogs across Russia. These ticks commonly carry pathogens and act as disease vectors. Ixodes persulcatus ticks present the greatest risk for transmission of multiple arthropod-borne pathogens.

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